The Concepts Associated with Situated Cognition are:
- Communities of practice.
- Legitimate Peripheral Participation.
- Authentic Activities.
- Cognitive Apprenticeship
Communities of practice:
Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor a tribe learning to survive, a band of.artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.
Legitimate Peripheral Participation:
Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP) describes how newcomers become experienced members and eventually old timers of a community of practice or collaborative project. According to LPP, newcomers become members pf a community initially by participating in simple and low-risk tasks that are nonetheless productive and necessary and further the goals of the community. Through peripheral activities, novices become acquainted with the tasks, vocabulary, and organizing principles of the community.
Gradually, as newcomers become old timers, their participation involves activities that are more and more central to the functioning of the community. LPP suggests that membership in a community of practice is mediated by the possible forms of participation to which newcomers have access, both physically and socially. If newcomers can directly observe the practices of experts, they understand the broader context into which their own efforts fit. Conversely LPP suggests that newcomers who are separated from the experts have limited access to their tools and community and therefore have limited Growth.
Authentic activities are based on daily life activities in which learners engage. Such activities have greater resemblance activities in which core members of a community actually engage. For example, assist science teaching-learning environments would allow students to practice science as scientists work on research projects in the real life. Working on projects with genuine purpose will constitute science learning according to situated cognition. Like, working on the project to study the soil and kind of vegetation in nearby area, working on project to make organic manure in school for sale to nearby kitchen gardens, cultivation of vegetables, making of handicraft, running a canteen, using demographic data, teaching illiterates or young children to read and write.
Beverly Caswell and Mary Lamon’s study on class four students provides an example of authentic work practices. Students were given an opportunity to become immersed in the culture of scientific inquiry. The researchers wanted their classroom to operate similar to the way scientific community operates. The study illustrates children working collaboratively on a range of learning tasks including initiating investigations and communicating findings. The idea was that learning environment is in which children are given number of opportunities to reflect on their ideas, compare perspectives and become aware that they are constructing knowledge as a group as well as individually can foster extraordinary learning for all students remarkable improvement in learning and understanding.
Cognitive Apprenticeships are one of the earliest pedagogical designs to incorporate the theories of situated cognition. Cognitive apprenticeship uses four dimensions (e.g., content, methods, sequence, sociology) to embed learning in activity and make deliberate the use of the social and physical contexts present in the classroom. Cognitive apprenticeship includes the enculturation of students into authentic practices through activity and social interaction . The technique draws on the principles of Legitimate Peripheral Participation (Lave and Wenger) and reciprocal teaching in that a more knowledgeable other, i.e.
A teacher, engages in task with a more novice other, i.e. a learner, by describing their own thoughts as they work on the task, providing “just in time” scaffolding, modelling expert behaviors, and encouraging reflection. The reflection process includes having students alternate between novice and expert strategies in a problem-solving context, sensitizing them to specifics of an expert performance, and adjustments that may be made to their own performance to get them to the expert level.
Thus, the function of reflection indicates “co-investigation” and or abstracted replay by students emphasized by six critical features of a cognitive apprenticeship that included observation, coaching, scaffolding, modelling, fading and reflection. Using these critical features expert’s guided students on their journey to acquire the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes and skills necessary to handle a variety of tasks, in a range of situations. Reciprocal teaching, a thin of cognitive apprenticeship, involves the modelling and coaching of various comprehension skills as teacher and students take turns in assuming the role of instructor.
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