Paraphrasing can be done when presenting facts and definitions. In paraphrasing, sentences or phrases are referred in the source text. When we rewrite a short section from the text, we generally use paraphrasing. On the other hand, we summarize when we want to refer to ideas in a long text. Summarizing helps the researcher in eliciting the author’s ideas. When we summarize a subject, we delete unnecessary details and examples. However, whether we summarize or paraphrase, we need to include a reference citing the source of the ideas.
The following process can be useful for summarizing and paraphrasing information:
- Careful reading of the text: We have to read the text several times and to make sure that we understand what is written in the text.
- Identify key words and main ideas in the text: We have to pick up the main ideas in the text.
- Group the ideas under new headings: The key ideas can be arranged in a different sequence to the original text.
- Know the attitude of the author: We have to understand whether the author is critical, supportive, certain, or uncertain. Appropriate reporting verbs should be used to describe this attitude.
- Use words or phrases with the same meaning in-the original text: If specialized vocabulary has been used in the subject for the main ideas, we can include them in our writing.
- Use notes from the above steps: We should draft the summary or paraphrase.
- Check whether the meaning and attitude of the original content has been retained: We can compare the draft with the original text.
Techniques for paraphrasing a text:
We should use synonymous:
With this technique, we can keep the meaning of the words as they are even while using new words.