Discuss the sources of administrative expertise and the policy-making role of the administrators.
The administrators on the basis of their work achieved an expertise, which is very valuable for the political decision makers. There are many reasons for it: The administrators stay in office for much longer periods than the politicians who come and go with elections. The administrators as they give sustained attentions to the problems get acquainted with many aspects of them which are not even visible normally. They know the practical difficulties which generally do not come in the beginning.
The administrators are in possession of facts, figures, information and intelligence regarding the specific areas of policy-making. This knowledge is not their personal, it is official, documented and conserved and transmitted to new generations who come to occupy those key positions. Another reason of expertise is that a large variety of professionals are coming to the administrative services and advent of merit system has helped to attract better talent in civil services.
The administrators have come to play a wider role in policy formulation. There are many reasons for it. Firstly, the politicians require the data support to make their policies really effective and depend on the administrators for it. Secondly, the administrators give valuable advice on the basis of being more informed and having expertise in their field. Thirdly, the policies which are place before the legislature owe their origin to the drafts prepared by the civil servants of long experience. Fourthly, the administrators exercise their discretion while considering alternative courses of action.
Finally, the legislatures find it better to leave the details of political decisions in various highly technical fields to be finalized by experts who are well-versed in those fields.