Give an account of the main characteristics of agricultural relations during the early medieval period.
The early medieval period was characterized by major dynamism in the field of agricultural growth. The main characteristics of the agricultural relations during this period was:
Burden of tax: The land grant system entitled the owner of the land to-collect all kinds of taxes. Thus, the thrillers suffered from an ever increasing burden of tax and rent for instance the Vatata grants lists 14 types of dues. There were also reforms on forced labor.
Feudal land Tenure: Land grant system advanced into hierarchical rights over land and sub-infeudation. There used to be four grades of land rights in a single piece of land, the Mahipati (King), Kshetravamin (land owner), Karshaka (cultivator) and the sub-tenant. This system led to the monopoly of landlords who lived off the surplus produced by the real cultivators. Devadana was a kind of done in which the land and the villages were denoted to the temples in South India. These religious organizations became the landed owners and gave plots to officials, artisans, etc. Temple land was also being based out for cultivation leading to complexities in the system.
Closed Economy: Dharmsastras restricted the movements of Bralmanas, sea voyages were prohibited fostering strong local identities. The transfers of settlement to various categories of land lords had created a cordial atmosphere for the growth of independent closed units of production and the consumption as well.