Sikh Institutions: Gurudwara means Guru’s abode and represents the place of worship. The Holy Granth has a seat in it and hymns are recited regularly from it. Over 200 historical Gurudwaras associated with the Gurus are therein the country. Shiromani Gurudwaras Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) control the Gurudwaras. The most sacred Gurudwara of the Sikhs is the Golden Temple of Harmandar Sahib Gurudwara at Amritsar. It was built by the fifth Guru of Sikhs. The temple was built at a level lower than the city. This is meant to express the humility of the Gurus. There are four main gates opening in different directions which is taken to mean that the temple is open equally to all the four castes.
Further, the Golden Temple comprises of two parts main part is called Harmandar which is set in the center of a tank. Gurbani or the religious hymns are recited here. The other part lies outside the main gate of the Harmandar. It is called Akaltakht or God’s court and is the seat of temporal authority of the Sikh Gurus. They discussed issues of importance as those of political. Thus, the two seats of spiritual and temporal authority are a part of the Sikh community ethos.
Sadh Sangat is the holy gathering which discusses important issues related to the community. Their decision is binding and have the authority to impose punishments. Institution of Langar or community kitchen where people of all religions, castes sit together and eat is a unique feature of Sikhism. These Sikh institutions reflect ethos of equality, an integral part of the religion. Since the orientation to engage in economic activity flow from religious values, the Sikhs have established themselves even in the face of adversity. They have exhibited a high achievement-orientation.
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