What are various Considerations for Application Design?
Information Management System in Tourism
While developing a new application, you must be aware of that certain elements provided for designing the new application are:
- Data Flows: The route through which the data flows in an organization.
- Data Stores: The method in which the data is to be stored type of storage.
- Processes: The method in which the input data will be processed and various functions are carried out to output the results.
- Procedures: The guidelines for using the system to achieve the desired results.
- Controls: The feature that allows the guide-lines to ensure the proper working of the system, so that the problems are detected and handled properly.
- Roles: The roles which each every person in an organization are going to play.
The outputs are final desired results, therefore to provide a permanent copy of these results, these should be designed around the output requirements of the user. The output devices are also considered keeping in mind the factors such as compatibility of the device with the system’s response time requirements, print quality and number of copies needed at a time.
- Type of User and purpose
- Contents of the output
- Format of the output
- Type of the output device
- Response time of the output device
- Volume of output
- Quality of output
Apart from the above basic requirements, after the coding stage for these outputs, the printed outputs -should’be above to justify themselves with the following requirements:
- Specific Title.
- Each output field should include significant zeros, spaces between the fields and alphabetic or any other data.
- Procedures for proving output data accuracy.
- Good Readability.
- Proper page numbering and headings.
- Meaningful labels for columns.
- Summary lines like group titles, page totals, report totals.
The next step towards design is the finalization of input designs. The various types of inputs are:
- External inputs: These are the prime inputs to the system i.e., sales orders, purchases, invoices, etc.
- Internal inputs: It deals in the user communications with the system i.e. file modifications, adjustments, etc.
- Operation inputs: These deals directly with the people handling the computer department in the system, i.e., job control parameters, file names, etc.
- Computerized inputs: These are the inputs in computer media coming from other internal systems or external systems, i.e., bank record stored on magnetic tapes, etc.
- Interactive inputs: These deals with the inputs entered during a dialogue with the computer.
Once the input designs are finalized, you need to, finalize the data storage.tools like files. You may need to store data on temporary or short period or long periods. These data will be stored in files in a logical man¬ner i.e., the client personal details should always go to the client masters; items should be stored in item master, etc.
The basic factors that affect the file design are:
- File Access Method: It can be serial access or direct access files.
- File Size: It implies the total number of records, record size and the method of storing the data on the file medium.
- Item Design: It deals in the factors like fixed length records or variable length records.
- Cost of the file media: It costs highest for direct fast access devices such as drum and disk and the lowest for slow access storage media such as magnetic tapes.
- File maintenance, processing and inquire requirement: It is based on whether we require frequent on-line updating and retrieval versus periodic processing.
- Need for a database: As the complexity of the office management increases, the database expands the record size.
- File Security: Security provisions to restrict the access and to restrict the making of changing in the file.
The procedural design can widely be classified into the following:
Validation: Data validation process insures that source data is correctly recorded before data preparation takes place. When the data is input for processing, it is subjected to a vetting procedure by means of validation. The objective is to allow only valid data to be written on the media which will be used in subsequent processing.
Sorting: Sorting means arranging data in a particular logic order. This is required basically for the sequential accessing and sequential data files. Sorting can usually be carried out either in ascending or descending sequence.
Processing a serial access devices: Procedures are made to access the data from a serial medium where each record is read and processed before writing it back to the storage medium.
Processing a direct access devices: Procedures are made to access the data from the direct access medium, so as to save time. Sequential files are Processed in a logical sequence, however, the random files are processed randomly depending upon the keys.
Processing a database: The database approach is aimed at simplifying the process of application programming. The objective here is to exploit the advantages offered by the data-bases.
Printing: This procedure deals with process of outputting the desired results generated after processing.