Cognitive Apprenticeships are one of the earliest pedagogical designs to incorporate the theories of situated cognition. Cognitive apprenticeship uses four dimensions (e.g., content, methods, sequence, sociology) to embed learning in activity and make deliberate the use of the social and physical contexts present in the classroom. Cognitive apprenticeship includes the enculturation of students into authentic practices through activity and social interaction . The technique draws on the principles of Legitimate Peripheral Participation (Lave and Wenger) and reciprocal teaching in that a more knowledgeable other, i.e.
A teacher, engages in task with a more novice other, i.e. a learner, by describing their own thoughts as they work on the task, providing “just in time” scaffolding, modelling expert behaviors, and encouraging reflection. The reflection process includes having students alternate between novice and expert strategies in a problem-solving context, sensitizing them to specifics of an expert performance, and adjustments that may be made to their own performance to get them to the expert level.
Thus, the function of reflection indicates “co-investigation” and or abstracted replay by students emphasized by six critical features of a cognitive apprenticeship that included observation, coaching, scaffolding, modelling, fading and reflection. Using these critical features expert’s guided students on their journey to acquire the cognitive and meta-cognitive processes and skills necessary to handle a variety of tasks, in a range of situations. Reciprocal teaching, a thin of cognitive apprenticeship, involves the modelling and coaching of various comprehension skills as teacher and students take turns in assuming the role of instructor.