Marketing communication is made of two terms “marketing” and “communication”. Marketing means any thing relating to marketing, i.e., marketer and consumer. Communication is a process which involves a sender of message and a receiver. Communication is completed only when the receiver is able to interpret the message as desired by the sender and responds to it.
The process of communication begins when one person (the sender) wants to transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to someone else (the receiver) marketing communication consists of marketer (as the sender) and consumer (as the receiver). Marketing Communication refers to the communication used by marketers to exchange persuasive messages and information to its present and prospective customers. In other words, marketing communication is the process of influencing consumer behaviour by sharing ideas, information or feelings with them. The objective of marketing communication is to influence buying behaviour among existing and potential customers.
Marketing communication has following characteristics:
- Marketing communication is a continuous process.
- Marketing communication is two-way process but it begins on the part of marketer.
- Marketing communication begins with the message by the company and consumers respond to it.
- The objective of marketing communication is to influence the behaviour of consumers.
Elements of a Simple Communication:
According to Louis A. Allen, “communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the minds of others. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding” Following are the elements of a simple communication:
Sender: Sender is a person who conveys the message. Sender is a person from whom the communication process originates. A sender may be a speaker, a writer or an actor. He initiates the process of communication. He formulates the message which he wants to convey.
Receiver: Receiver is the person who is supposed to receive the message. Receiver may be a listener, reader or an observer.
Message: Message is the subject matter of communication. Message may consist of facts, information, ideas, opinions, etc. Message exists in the mind of the sender.
Channel or Medium: Medium or a channel is a route through which the message is passed by the sender. Medium links the sender with the receiver. A medium may take the form of face to face communication, written communication, telephone, group meetings, letter, radio, television, manual, etc.
Encoding: Encoding is the process of translating ideas into language, i.e., words, symbols, gestures or code. Encoding is necessary because there is no way of sending an idea from one person to another. The sender translates the messages into words, symbols, etc., which he feels will make the receiver understand the message.
Decoding: Decoding means translating the message to words for the purpose of understanding. Decoding is the conversion of received message into thought in order to derive its meaning.
Response: Response is a set of reactions a receiver has after being exposed to the message. Receiver responds to sender’s message by reacting in different ways such as asking questions, etc.
Feedback: Communication is incomplete without feedback. Communication is regarded as a two-way process. It includes sending of a message and the response to that message. This response is called feedback. The process of communication unless the receiver’s understanding is known through his response, is not complete. Feedback keeps avoiding likely errors in transmission and in invoking effective participation of the subordinates in work.
Noise: Noise refers to the disruption or interference in communication process anywhere along the way. Noise can occur at any point in the communication process. Noise can be the sound of someone coughing, a truck driving by, two people talking close at hand, a telephone line going dead, etc.