A modem society is characterized by the following features. High per-capita income, urbanization and industrialization, increased social mobility, high rates of literacy, developed means mass-communication and widespread social and political participation. The main features of modem societies include:
- The development of a government apparatus, on a national basis, laying claim to a specific territorial area (marked by clear borders and policed in some way).
- A formalized (i.e. written) code of national law that is enforced through a police and judicial process.
- The development of some form of political representation, whereby the wishes of the population can be effectively transmitted to political rulers.
- The development of a national armed force network primarily constituted for defensive purposes (but also acting, in times of crisis, as an internal means of social control).
Political System: A sub-system of social system, political system has the monopoly to use coercive powers over the members of society. It consists of structures, functions and transactions which works to control individuals and groups within the social system.
A democracy is a political system in which the opportunity to participate in decisions is widely shared among all adult citizens while dictatorship is a political system in which the opportunity to participate in decisions is restricted to a few. Political or governmental institutions are societal arrangements for making and enforcing laws, protecting the public health and welfare, distributing public funds and tax burdens, conducting foreign affairs, and deciding the issue of war and peace. Political Institutions are the ultimate source of legitimate power in a social system, whether the system is based upon rule by the many or rule by the few.