Post-modernist theory advocates public-participatory planning processes. incorporating indigenous ideas and allowing for the same in/through public policy. It thus criticizes the top-down technocratic planning processes. Similarly, the New Public Management also calls for “roll back of the state” phenomenon/ precept where ways are being explored to make governance more representative, broad based and participatory. The ‘post-modem’ approach observes that the modern nation-state should have a pluralist-representative character.
According to criticism presented by the public choice approach the ‘majority orientation’ negates democracy which not only creates political marginalization of affected minority groups but on the whole democracy is rendered less representative as a result policy choices and decisions get tinged with arbitrary character. This kind of governance is not efficient since it is less ‘rational’ in the sense of inclusiveness of the process of articulating public interest in all socio-political and economic aspects of the society. According to World Bask explanations, democratic decentralization should mean more than the downward delegation of authority. It implies a system of governance in which citizens possess the right to hold local public officials accountable through a democratic process.