Many biochemical studies have been conducted an experimental animals and plants because these organisms are small, it is less expensive to maintain them. They grow well arid multiply fast under laboratory conditions. Some experimental animals are rats, mice, guinea, pigs and some experimental plants are algae, moulds, mosses, tobacco, wheat, soyabean, pisum sativum (garden pea) etc. Such organism have rapid metabolic rate and they respond efficiently to the change in physiological conditions. To investigate metabolic pathways of these organisms specific chemicals, like enzymes, hormones and regulating or inhibiting drugs are administered into the animals via the oral or nasal route or through injections.
For plants such chemicals are infused into the medium in which they grow. Later, the effect of these treatment is tested by analyzing the blood samples of animals and sap samples of plants or by studying the histology or histo-chemistry of the tissues. We can remove an organ from experimental animals body and can experiment. This process is called hepatectomy. For investigate the effect of food and their digestive system. We can keep them an alteration of diet (ex-fasting fooding). To investigate effect of toxin on their metabolic pathway toxins such as carbortetra chloride are administrated into the animals.
We can use sophisticated techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy and position emission tomography, on these animals. So animals and plants are used in bio-chemical studies.
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